Why do you need lessons to free America?

We are witnessing a brutal attack on all moral values by enemies who have no respect for the rights of others.

The millennia long struggle against evil persists because you tolerate evil.

Your acceptance of socialism cannot be discounted as we examine what is happening on the streets of America. And courtrooms.

There is a reason you do not live in a free America. You failed to stand for traditional values.* Retaking America will take time. And it will be frightening.

Standing up to your high school bullies was frightening until you took some martial arts lessons. And standing up to your legal bullies will be frightening until you take law lessons.

Most of my lessons are free — but just like your martial arts lessons, it takes four or more years to get a black belt. Start now before the darkness falls.

Your high school bullies became lying lawyers — on their way to becoming lying politicians to force their way into global domination. Do not be fooled.

* These are the Laws of Nature and the Laws of Nature’s God that the first sentence of the Declaration of Independence proclaimed as the authority that entitles the United States to exist. If you are not living in harmony with Nature — and you will continue to suffer the consequences.

Make America Free Again
By Steven D. Miller

You can be easily tricked out of your rights. 

The US Supreme Court tells us that there are three reasons that we are tricked out of our rights: “an official command, … has some coercive tendency, either because of ignorance of their rights on the part of those whom it purports to command or their natural respect for what appears to be an official command, or because of their reluctance to test the … validity by litigation.” — We will study these later.

America has been conquered by Collectivist central planners who are trained to cunningly deceive you. Learn their dirty tricks and avoid enslavement. People are destroyed for lack of knowledge. Most people are deceived out of their rights by bullies that impose cleverly written regulations that only apply to strictly regulated Constitutional government privileges, but made to seem like they apply to everyone.1

You are under strong delusion, that you might believe a lie.

The lessons presented here will expose lies of “the powers that be” — “the system” — the hidden “they” — “the shadow government” — the Cabal — the deep State — the Secret Societies that JFK warned us about — that have infiltrated and control all branches of government. Read More…. 

  • This website will change your life only if you are willing to lose your delusions and accept the truths that will set you free.
  • Learn how to manage yourself before you learn how to manage your government.
  • I will tell you your transgressions even if you don’t like it.  Actions speak louder than words.  It is your actions that will set you free — or enslave you.
  • This website will not be popular to ignorant readers.  BUT YOU CANNOT JUST IGNORE whatever you don’t like. Ignorance always results in slavery.

Liberty Bell. Graceful grace once shed on thee from sea to shining sea. Not all lighthouses warn of danger. Minuteman in Concord.

Ignorance enslaves

“the principal danger to civil liberty [is] in the governed unequipped to function as governors. The chief enemies of republican freedom are mental sloth, conformity, bigotry, superstition, credulity, monopoly in the market of ideas, and utter, benighted ignorance. Relying as it does on the consent of the governed, representative government cannot succeed unless the community receives enough information to grasp public issues and make sensible decisions.” 
— U.S. Supreme Court, ADDERLEY v. FLORIDA (1966), 385 US 39  

if a nation expects to be ignorant and free, in a state of civilization, it expects what never was and never will be,”
— Thomas Jefferson, Letter to Colonel Charles Yancey (6 January 1816) 

“The privilege against self-incrimination is neither accorded to the passive resistant, nor the person who is ignorant of his rights, nor to one indifferent therein. …. It cannot be claimed by attorney … It is valid only when insisted upon by a belligerent claimant in person.”
— US v. Johnson, 76 FSupp 538 

This is not a new problem.  It has plagued mankind for at least 26 Centuries.  Isaiah 5:13 (KJV) “Therefore my people are gone into captivity, because they have no knowledge…” 

All your life, you have been taught to resist Truth. 

free lessons for a free america
Many lies do not become truth.

If the chaos around you doesn’t make sense, find out why.

If global turmoil just doesn’t make sense, then find out why.

If our social, political, economic, educational, judicial, healthcare, and moral decay just do not make sense anymore, then find out why.

:===:  :===:  :===:

Rights only come with responsibilities.  If you want your rights back, you must become responsible. Responsible enough to control the government you inherited. You cannot have the legal standing to control government if you remain their ward.  Great power only comes with great responsibility. Learn how to set yourself free.  Read More…. 

You must understand your rights or you will not recognize Government Overreach. 

  • Bullies in high places don’t care what authority they really have.
  • People are deceived out of their rights3 by legalities they did not understand.
  • If you don’t know your rights, you will lose them.  If you don’t know how to defend your rights in their courts, you will lose them.
  • You cannot overcome your slave attitude until you understand your rights.  You cannot set yourself free until you know why you were trapped.

:===:  :===:  :===:

NotFooledByGovernment.com -- Free Lessons for a Free America

Those who receive not a love for the truth shall receive
strong delusion that they should believe a lie.

:===:  :===:  :===:

What is government?

• What is the purpose of government?
• Why would anyone create a government?
• What authorizes government to exist?
• Should government exist?

All these questions are easily explained.  See my essays on Government and The intent of the Founders.

Rights only come with responsibilitiesGovernment encourages us to be irresponsible. The civil laws reduce an ungrateful freeman to slavery.  If you confessed on a government document that you are ungrateful for your freedom, the civil law in America has a right to control you. You will NOT have a free America UNTIL you deserve it.

Insightful Quotes


\"It is error alone which needs the support of government. Truth can stand by itself.”
— Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, 1782
“I cannot find any authority in the Constitution for public charity.... [this] would be contrary to the letter and the spirit of the Constitution and subversive to the whole theory upon which the Union of these States is founded.
-- President Franklin Pierce 1854 veto of our nation\'s first attempt at a health care bill
\"Well, the trouble with our liberal friends is not that they are ignorant, but that they know so much that isn’t so!”
— October 27, 1964 Ronald Reagan speech on television “A Time for Choosing”.
[Ronald Reagan was a former Democrat]
\"Liberty cannot be preserved without general knowledge among the people. … The jaws of power are always open to devour, and her arm is always stretched out, if possible, to destroy the freedom of thinking, speaking, and writing. ”
— JOHN ADAMS, Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law No. 3, Boston Gazette, 30 Sept. 1765

\"Unthinking respect for authority is the greatest enemy of truth. ”
— Albert Einstein, letter to Jost Winteler, 1901.
\"When men are pure, laws are useless; when men are corrupt, laws are broken. ”
— Benjamin Disraeli, Contarini Fleming – A Psychological Romance, Part 6, Chapter 3

“Those who would give up essential Liberty, to purchase a little temporary Safety, deserve neither Liberty nor Safety.”
-- Benjamin Franklin, November 11, 1755; Reply to the Governor.
“It is hard to imagine a more stupid or more dangerous way of making decisions than by putting those decisions in the hands of people who pay no price for being wrong.”
-- Thomas Sowell, August 18, 2000 column
Corruptissima re publica plurimae leges.
The more numerous the laws, the more corrupt the government.
— Gaius Cornelius Tacitus, Roman Senator, circa 100 AD, Annals of Tacitus, Book III, page 27.
“The giver of the law most owes the law allegiance. He of all beings should behave as if the law compels him. But it is the universal failing of mankind that what we are given to administer, we promptly presume we own.”
-- H.G. Wells, OUTLINE OF HISTORY, 1920, speaking to the excesses of the Popes during the Dark Ages

\"None are so hopelessly enslaved than those who falsely believe they are free. ”
— Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Elective Affinities, 1809
\"The tax collector is never esteemed a lovable man. His methods are too blunt and his powers too obnoxious.\"
-- attributed to President Woodrow Wilson, Seattle Times, August 16, 1981, page H1

\"The philosophy of the school room in one generation will be the philosophy of government in the next.\"
-- Abraham Lincoln

\"All that is necessary for evil to triumph is for good men to do nothing\"
-- Edmund Burke, April 23, 1770
“Guard with jealous attention the public liberty. Suspect everyone who approaches that jewel. Unfortunately, nothing will preserve it but downright force. Whenever you give up that force, you are inevitably ruined.”
-- Patrick Henry, June 5, 1788 quoted in Elliot’s Debates Vol 3, page 45
\"The condition upon which God hath given liberty to man is eternal vigilance; which condition if he breaks, servitude is at once the consequence of his crime.\"
-- John Philpot Curran, July 10, 1790
\"When bad men combine, the good must associate; else they will fall one by one, an unpitied sacrifice in a contemptible struggle.\"
-- Edmund Burke, Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontents (1770)
\"Familiarize yourself with the chains of bondage and prepare your own limbs to wear them. Accustomed to trampling on the rights of others you have lost the genius of your own independence and become the fit subjects of the first cunning tyrant who rises among you.\" -- Abraham Lincoln, September 11, 1858
\"It is impossible to enslave mentally or socially a Bible-reading people. The principles of the Bible are the groundwork of human freedom.\"
-- Horace Greeley
[Stop getting your religion from people who want to enslave you.]

“Liberty is rendered even more precious by the recollection of servitude.”
Marcus Tullius Cicero, 106-43 B.C.
“No man survives when freedom fails, ...
And those who cry ‘appease, appease’ Are hanged by those they tried to please.”
-- Hiram Mann
\"in questions of power then, let no more be heard of confidence in man, but bind him down from mischief by the chains of the constitution.\"
-- Thomas Jefferson, letter to James Madison, 17 November 1798
\"To violate man\'s rights means to compel him to act against his own judgment... there is only one way to do it: by the use of physical force. There are two potential violators of man’s rights: the criminals and the government. The great achievement of the United States was to draw a distinction between these two — by forbidding to the second the legalized version of the activities of the first.\"
-- Ayn Rand essay \"Man\'s Rights\", April 1963 issue of The Objectivist Newsletter

“Timid men ... prefer the calm of despotism to the tempestuous sea of liberty.”
-- Thomas Jefferson, April 24, 1796, Letter to Phillip Mazzei
\"The economic ills we suffer have come upon us over several decades.... In this present crisis, government is not the solution to our problem; government is the problem. \"
-- Ronald Reagan first inaugural address January 20, 1981
Maxim of Law:
\"The civil laws reduce an ungrateful freedman to his original slavery\"
Libertinum ingratum leges civiles in pristinam servitutem redigunt.
\"Those who already walk submissively will say there is no cause for alarm. But submissiveness is not our heritage. The First Amendment was designed to allow rebellion to remain as our heritage.\"
-- US Supreme Court, Laird v. Tatum, 408 US 1, page 28
“Enlighten the people generally, and tyranny and oppressions of body and mind will vanish ... the diffusion of knowledge among the people is to be the instrument by which it is to be effected.”
-- Thomas Jefferson letter to Pierre S. Dupond de Nemours on April 24, 1816

\"...but the simplest thing cannot be made clear to the most intelligent man if he is firmly persuaded that he already knows ... what is laid before him.”
-- attributed to Leo Tolstoy, 1894\"
\"The American mind simply has not come to a realization of the evil which has been
introduced into our midst. It rejects even the assumption that human creatures could espouse a philosophy which must ultimately destroy all that is good and decent.\"
-- attributed to J Edgar Hoover in The Elks Magazine issue of August 1956
\"Where-ever law ends, tyranny begins, ... whosoever in authority ... makes use of the force he has under his command ... which the law allows not, ceases in that to be a magistrate; and, acting without authority, may be opposed, as any other man, who by force invades the right of another.\"
-- John Locke\'s Second Treatise of Government, Sec. 202.

\"If ye love wealth better than liberty, the tranquility of servitude better than the animating contest of freedom, go home from us in peace. \"
-- Samuel Adams, speech at the Pennsylvania State House, 1 August 1776
\"I Have Sworn Upon the Altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man.\"
-- Thomas Jefferson letter to Dr. Benjamin Rush - Sep. 23, 1800
“...and Socialist governments traditionally do make a financial mess. They [socialists] always run out of other people’s money. It’s quite a characteristic of them.”
-- British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher BBC interview, Feb. 5, 1976
\" The individual may stand upon his constitutional rights as a citizen. . . . He owes nothing to the public so long as he does not trespass upon their rights... An individual may lawfully refuse to answer incriminating questions unless protected by an immunity statute.\"
-- U.S. Supreme Court, Hale v. Henkel, 201 US 43, at page 74
\"Waivers of Constitutional rights not only must be voluntary, but must be knowing, intelligent acts done with sufficient awareness of the relevant circumstances and likely consequences\"
-- U.S. Supreme Court in Brady v. United States, 397 U.S. 742
\"But should the People of America, ...while it is practicing Iniquity and Extravagance; ...while it is rioting in rapine and Insolence: this Country will be the most miserable Habitation in the World.\"
-- John Adams letter to Massachusetts Militia, 11 October 1798
\"We have no Government ... capable of contending with human Passions unbridled by morality and Religion. Avarice, Ambition, Revenge or Galantry, would break the strongest Cords of our Constitution .... Our Constitution was made only for a moral and religious People. It is wholly inadequate to the government of any other.\"
-- John Adams letter to Massachusetts Militia, 11 October 1798

\"But freedoms of speech and of press, of assembly, and of worship may not be infringed on such slender grounds. They are susceptible of restriction only to prevent grave and immediate danger to interests which the State may lawfully protect.\"
-- U.S. Supreme Court in WV Board of Education v. Barnetee, 319 U.S. 624 (1943)
\"The privilege against self-incrimination is neither accorded to the passive resistant, nor the person who is ignorant of his rights, nor to one indifferent therein. …. It cannot be claimed by attorney … It is valid only when insisted upon by a belligerent claimant in person.\"
-- US v. Johnson 76 FSupp 538

‘Freedom is not a gift bestowed upon us by other men, but a right that belongs to us by the laws of God and nature.’
-- John Webbe, in an essay published in Ben Franklin’s Pennsylvania Gazette on April 1, 1736.
“A nation of well-informed men, who have been taught to know and prize the rights which God has given them, cannot be enslaved.”
-- Henry Stuber biography of Ben Franklin in the 1793 edition of Franklin’s autobiography.
“If Virtue and Knowledge are diffused among the People, they will never be enslaved. This will be their great Security\" --Samuel Adams, letter to James Warren, quoted in Our Sacred Honor, Bennett, page 217, 1779
\"Dependence begets subservience and venality, suffocates the germ of virtue, and prepares fit tools for the designs of ambition.”
-- Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, Query 19, 1787.
“While the people are virtuous they cannot be subdued; but when once they lose their virtue then they will be ready to surrender their liberties to the first external or internal invader.”
-- Samuel Adams letter to James Warren quoted in The Writings of Samuel Adams, Cushing, ed., vol. 4, page 124, 1779

Edmond Pendleton, speech at the Virginia Ratifying Convention June 5, 1788 debated Patrick Henry in his opposition to the phrase “We the People”: “Permit me to ask the gentleman who made this objection, who but the people can delegate powers? Who but the people have the right to form government?”
“It is certainly true that a popular government cannot flourish without virtue in the people.”
-- Richard Henry Lee letter to Colonel Martin Pickett, quoted in The Letters of Richard Henry Lee, Ballagh, ed., vol. 2, p.411, 1786
“When we are planning for posterity, we ought to remember that virtue is not hereditary.”
-- Thomas Paine, Common Sense: and The American Crisis I”, p.38
\"... And what country can preserve its liberties, if its rulers are not warned from time to time, that their people preserve the spirit of resistance? ... Let them take arms...\"
-- Thomas Jefferson on November 13, 1787 letter to future Congressman William S. Smith
[Those were not the words of an angry young radical fighting in the Revolutionary War. This was the former Governor of Virginia, and Ambassador to France, the man who proposed the Bill of Rights.]

\"The real rulers of a nation are undiscoverable.\" -- Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter,
quoted in an article titled “Globalists Run U.S., Says Sen. Malone” in the Chicago Daily Tribune, April 25, 1949, p. 1
Felix Frankfurter was one of the founders of the ACLU
\"The world will not be destroyed by those who do evil, but by those who watch them without doing anything.\"
-- Albert Einstein, translated from Einstein\'s tribute to Pablo Casals (30 March 1953)
\"History fails to record a single precedent in which nations subject to moral decay have not passed into political and economic decline. There has been either a spiritual awakening to overcome the moral lapse, or a progressive deterioration leading to ultimate national disaster.\"
-- General Douglas MacArthur prophesied in his speech December 12, 1951

\"Those who make peaceful revolution impossible will make violent revolution inevitable.\"
-- President Kennedy in his address to the diplomatic corps on March 13, 1962.
\"He who can alter my state of mind, is my master.\"
-- Ralph Waldo Emerson speech, August 31, 1837
\"Whoever can be trusted with very little can also be trusted with much, and whoever is dishonest with very little will also be dishonest with much.\" -- Luke 16:10
“if a nation expects to be ignorant and free, in a state of civilization, it expects what never was and never will be,”
-- Thomas Jefferson, Letter to Colonel Charles Yancey (6 January 1816)

\"Man is then only disguise, falsehood, and hypocrisy, both in himself and with regard to others. He will not be told the truth, he avoids telling it to others, and all these tendencies, so far removed from justice and reason, have their natural roots in his heart.\"
-- The Thoughts of Blaise Pascal, by Blaise Pascal [1669] page 88
“When the government violates the people’s rights, insurrection is, for the people and for each portion of the people, the most sacred of the rights and the most indispensable of duties.”
— Marquis de Lafayette, partially quoting the 1793 French Declaration of the Right of Man
“When plunder becomes a way of life for a group of men living together in a society, they create for themselves in the course of time, a legal system that authorizes it and a moral code that glorifies it.”
-- Frederic Bastiat in 1850
“… I am asking your help in the tremendous task of informing and alerting the American people. For I have complete confidence in the response and dedication of our citizens whenever they are fully informed. “
--- JFK\'s Secret Society Conspiracy speech to the newspaper editors,
“Should I keep back my opinions at such a time, through fear of giving offense, I should consider myself as guilty of treason toward my country, and of an act of disloyalty toward the Majesty of Heaven, which I revere above all earthly kings.”
― Patrick Henry, We Must Fight speech at the Second Virginia Convention, which ended with his quote \"Give me liberty or give me death\"

*–*–*

Learn to question counterfeit authority. The chaos around us will vanish just as Thomas Jefferson suggested in 1816:

Enlighten the people generally, and tyranny and oppressions of body and mind will vanish….”

United States of America, once extoled as a shining beacon of virtue guiding the world -- has lost it's freedoms.
Enlighten the people generally, and tyranny and oppressions will vanish

Lighthouses are warnings. Do not shipwreck your life on the jagged rocks of reality.
I am here to enlighten the people generally AND to guide you away from danger.

*–*–*

HOMESCHOOLERS MAY BE INTERESTED IN

  • My free essays on Public Education, Vaccinations, Civics, and  Why the Constitution and Bill of Rights DOES NOT include education.
    And don’t miss my book on Family Rights
  • The content on this website provides plenty of opportunity for students to practice writing letters to public officials — but don’t be discouraged by politicians not understanding any fundamentals of the society that they swore to protect. After all, Contra principia negantem non est disputandum. There can be no debate with one who denies fundamentals.  
  • Homeschoolers who are under the age of 18 have a great advantage that the rest of us do not have. They can rescind their prior contracts (such as SSNs and licenses) when they turn 18 with no explanation required. Details are in your State’s emancipation laws. You will have 20 days to rescind contracts after you turn 18.  Otherwise rescinding your contracts (express or implied) will need solid proof that you were tricked out of your rights — which the courts will ignore.  Ignorance of the law is never an excuse. 

PREPPERS AND CRYPTO-CURRENCY ADVOCATES MAY BE INTERESTED IN

PATRIOTS MAY BE INTERESTED IN

ENDTIME PROPHECY STUDENTS MAY BE INTERESTED IN

CONSERVATIVES MAY BE INTERESTED IN

PRO-SE VICTIMS OF GOVERNMENT MAY BE INTERESTED IN:

*–*–*

You are our only hope.
Think before you
Speak — Read before you Think.

*–*–*

YOU MAY ALSO BE INTERESTED IN:

You may also be interested in my book The Citizen Cannot Complain for only $4.50.  I explain the many ways that you waived your rights. Available as PDF download, or in any of the eBook formats.

Do you question the Constitutionality of the Income Tax in a country where rights cannot be taxed? Read my essays on Constitutional Taxation. And Income Tax: Mandatory or Voluntary?

I recommend the following books:

*–*–*

I RECOMMEND AN ONLINE LAW COURSE 

The Coronavirus shutdown is destroying families, forcing foreclosures, evicting tenants, preventing people from paying their bills, and exposing them to legal attack! Lawyers are jumping on this opportunity to take advantage of people who can’t afford a lawyer. 4 out of 5 people need what this course offers, yet only a handful know this course exists. HowToWinInCourt.com is easy to remember and easy to find, if you tell them about it. When you are talking with others in legal trouble, urge them to get this course so they can protect themselves and their families from lawyers who will destroy them if they don’t know what this course makes easy to learn.

  • Are you angry about the judicial system?
  • Are you mad at a judge that would not allow your proof of innocence? 
  • Are you mad that cops and prosecutors were allowed to lie to the judge?

If you are an unfortunate victim of government overreach, I recommend an online law course written by a lawyer with 32 years experience. How To Win In Court” self-help course. Learn the procedures and practices that run American courts. If you do not know how to defend your rights in their courts, you will lose. If you don’t know how to control the judge, you will lose.  For less cost than one hour with a lawyer, you can gain enough knowledge to fight your own battles. 

I have used this knowledge to fight off a lying lawyer who was suing my son for $60,000. I used a flurry of paperwork and a few hours of prep work. 

To win your court case you must know how to do these things:
•Draft proper pleadings with all fact elements
•Obtain necessary evidence before trial
•Make effective oral motions
•Draft effective written motions
•Use online legal research
•Draft compelling memoranda
•Insure a written record of all proceedings
•Object promptly to all errors of opponent
•Object promptly to all errors of judge
•Renew objections to all un-cured errors of judge
•Keep your opponent’s evidence out
•Get your evidence in
•Stop opponent from proposing false orders
•Offer to draft all orders
•Stop opponent’s lawyer from testifying
•… and much more … !

You risk losing if you don’t know how to do these things.

Learning how to do these things is easy.

This “How to Win in Court” course makes it easy to learn how with sample forms and simplified step-by-step explanations.

Take a tour of the How To Win In Court” self-help course.  

Why Pro Se Litigants Have a Hard Time. 

Whether it’s the high cost of lawyers’ fees or growing distrust of lawyers, there is a mounting trend these days for more people to fight without a lawyer.
Reliable surveys report 4 out of 5 cannot afford a lawyer.
Most people don’t trust lawyers.
Yet ½ of all court proceedings involve at least one pro se party.
Too many pro se people lose … needlessly!
Ever wonder why you were never taught anything about court procedure or the rules of evidence in your tax-supported schools?
Who benefits from your legal ignorance?
You guessed it.
Lawyers!
People using this course are winning without a lawyer!
You can, too!
This course shows how with sample forms and simplified explanations.
Learn How to Win!

– – – – –

FOOTNOTES

1. The Constitution controls government. The Constitution also secures the blessings of liberty. There is no conflict in these two duties of government. You live in a free country. Government performs the functions delegated to them by the Constitution (according to the 10th Amendment).  There is no government outside the delegated functions (except they can step-in to save a life, just like anyone else). Government did not impair the obligation of contracts (with safety laws, minimum wage laws, tax laws on any common occupations of life, etc.). People are subject only to laws promulgated specifically to them.  Laws are promulgated ONLY to specific persons who are performing government granted privileges. If you are not performing a privilege, do not be tricked into volunteering. Learn how to stand up to bullies.  You are often ensnared into legalities by your respect for what appears to be authority. Learn the rules of Statute construction and find out why.

2. For those who are Bible believers: The LORD Himself warned you in Fist Samuel 8:5-17 that elected government will tax, tax and tax until you cannot stand it (and back then it was just 10% tax).  You were warned that your government would take, take, take, take, take and take until society collectively wants God back into their life, but God will not answer your prayers according to First Samuel 8:18 (God honored your free-will, you got what you wanted, stop complaining).

3. Many people think that rights come from government. They have been fooled. Rights do NOT come from government. Government can only take away rights. The Bill of Rights DOES NOT grant any rights. The Bill of Rights adds further restrictions on government. The bill itself (Link) stipulates its purpose:
“in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added”. 

*–*–*

SUBMIT YOUR QUESTIONS, COMMENTS, AND SUGGESTIONS HERE.
Feedback is welcome.  I will correct any error that you may find on these pages.

*–*–*

*–*–*

WARNING

Ecclesiastes 1:18 (NKJV):
For in much wisdom is much grief,
And he who increases knowledge increases sorrow.

%d bloggers like this: